HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES STEP BY STEP EXPLAINED (MORE ACCURATE THAN ONLINE CALCULATOR)

Nowadays if someone is trying to get fit like wanting to lose 10 pounds of fat or wanting to gain a significant amount of muscle, take their phone search on google foods that helps in losing fat or top 10 foods to gain weight“.

It means people think that it’s the particular food which will help them lose or gain weight. But it is not.

In short, I want to say that “The majority of things were delivered without context“.

What does it mean?

It means that a recommendation about when to consume protein is fine and good, but only if you understand what protein is and how it fits in with your energy levels and protein needs.

If you do not get this don’t worry I will discuss it in detail.

Most people looking to benefit from the information in this guide but their goals fall into a couple of different categories.

First, we need to know about maintenance calories then you should set your goals according to your wants, Finding maintenance calories is important because it gives you a direction in which way you should start to walk :).

Now I will discuss how to find maintenance calories and what should be the step-by-step approach in order to lose weight or to gain muscle.


Maintenance Calories Meaning?

Maintenance calories are precisely the number of calories your body needs to support energy expenditure to maintain the current weight of your body.

To be precise “Estimation of Caloric intake that would simply keep you at your current body weight is referred to as your maintenance calories“.

To determine maintenance, you can either track body weight and calories from food to ascertain the relationship between the two variables, so you can estimate maintenance calories.

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
People trying to understand what maintenance calories are

In this article, I will discuss 2 different methods for finding or estimating the maintenance calories.

Method One will be more accurate but it needs proper monitoring for at least 2 weeks whereas, Method Two will give you a rough estimation of calories at first but you have to do it with trial and error.

Both ways give you a value for maintenance calories.

Maintenance calories are the number of calories that your body needs to sustain your current body weight. For finding maintenance calories you need to track your body weight and the number of foods(calories) that you are consuming daily.


How To Determine Maintenance Calories

To find maintenance calories you will need a few essential approaches and tools which will help you in tracking foods and your current weight on daily basis. Which will be used to analyze later.


Is Tracking Food And Weight Necessary ?

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
At first, tracking is necessary!

The simple meaning of tracking is to have a record of something, Tracking food means having a record of what and how much you are eating in a day.

At first, it might seem to be a lot of work logging what you eat. But it will be worth it.

A study from Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research has shown that people who keep a food diary lose twice as much weight as those who don’t.

The reason behind this is very simple that people who track their food are more aware and conscious about what and how much they are eating which makes them aware of their portion control.

Tracking helps you gain awareness of mindless eating, observes the effect that your eating habits have on your body, and teaches you how to structure a basic diet for health and performance.

It requires more time, energy, and thought, but results in a much more accurate, individualized estimation of maintenance calories.

Essential Required for Tracking:

  • Obtain a digital body weight scale,
  • A digital food scale, and
  • An online account with a free food-tracking database like MyFitnessPal or HealthifyMe.

So yes at first tracking is necessary after you have a rough estimate of every food product you can easily get a rough idea of how much you are eating in a particular meal or in a day.

Tracking means keeping a record of something, tracking food is necessary because it helps you keep aware of your eating habits and portions. Few tools which will help in tracking like digital weighing and food scale and an account on MyFitnessPal or HealthifyMe (whichever you may like).


Tracking Bodyweight

What I recommend is to have a daily weigh-in first thing in the morning, after you use the bathroom, before you eat or drink anything, in minimal fewer clothes, and record the number.

Why should you weigh in first thing in the morning?

When you weigh yourself in the same condition daily, without eating anything and fewer clothes, the chances of variably will be eliminated. So what you will get in the weekly averages will be more accurate.

Note: It is totally normal for your body weight to fluctuate 1–2% on a daily basis due to shifts in water (sometimes more for some people). 

This is caused by day-to-day fluctuations in food intake, sodium intake, alcohol, and stress hormones, or from hormonal shifts during certain phases of a menstrual cycle (among other things). 

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
People after underestimating their weight


The weigh-ins will be more reliable when your diet is more consistent.

The next step is to spend 2 weeks weighing and tracking your food as best as you can when you prepare it.

Track or weigh yourself first thing in the morning after using the washroom and in minimal clothes without drinking or eating anything. Weigh yourself daily in this same situation so the chances of variability will be less and your weekly averages will be more accurate.


How To Tracking Food ?

Food tracking means keeping a record of all your food, meals, and beverages, too.

Weigh each meal daily for at least two weeks. What if you forgot to weigh and track food regularly?

Here I will recommend you a method which is mentioned by James Clear in his book called Atomic Habits, The method he called implementation intention and habit stacking. What is it?

In this method, you have to Stack habits in between your current habits

Like this way: [Current habit] –> [Habit you want to add]

[Habit you have added] –> [Another Current Habit]

Now for example [I will take my food in the plate]–> [I will track my meal on the app]

[After I track my meal]–> [I will start eating]

This is what the author calls habit stacking, like doing one thing after another or a chain of habits. this method you can use to implement this habit.

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
After tracking people realized that they were eating more than they actually needed

Next, It’s a good idea to weigh foods in their uncooked state.

Because The amount of time a food is cooked affects how much moisture it retains.

A portion of food with higher water content before cooking weighs more, but it has the same nutrition profile after it is cooked when it weighs less because the water has evaporated from cooking.

The opposite is true for foods like dried pasta and rice which weigh more after cooking due to increased water content.

Try to estimate your caloric intake when you aren’t preparing your own food as accurately as possible.

Food tracking means keeping a record of what and how much you are eating in a day. Weigh your foods before cooking to avoid fluctuations and track a record with help of any app like Healthyfime. If you forgot to track your means try habit stacking as mentioned above.


So after tracking your bodyweight and tracking your food/meals for two weeks straight, now here we come in the calculation part.

But what you’ll notice is that when you get a weekly average, that number is much less variable and much more comparable when looking at a previous week’s average.

These averages become even more consistent if you perform the weigh-ins as I recommend (first thing in the morning, after you use the bathroom before you eat or drink anything) and track meals more frequently.


Estimation of Maintenance Calories (Calculation)

As mentioned above Record your body weight for two weeks regularly in the same state.

At the end of two weeks, you will have 14 weigh-ins and 14 calorie values from food.

Let’s say your weight comes out on a daily basis as mentioned in the table.

BODYWEIGHT

Weight(pounds) in Week 1Weight in Week 2
141.7141.8
142.1142.2
142.7143.0
141.7141.7
142.5142.5
141.9142.8
142.1142.0
Average ~142.1 lbsAverage ~142.3 lbs

As you can see that you are slowly gaining weight.

If we add all the body weight, you can just divide it by 7 (1 week) and can see that on average you have gained 0.5kg (1.1 lbs) of weight in two weeks.

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
You trying to calculate all this be like

It simply means you are eating in a caloric surplus (more calories than your body needs to maintain).

But what does this mean with regards to calories? Well, we know that 1 lb (~0.5 kg) of adipose tissue(fat) contains ~3500 calories [1]. Therefore we can estimate how much of a surplus or deficit you are in based on weight change.

let’s say as an example, what you ate in the two weeks on an average this comes out this value came out to 2100 calories.

As we know that you have gained 0.5 kg in that week means you are on a 3500 calories surplus in that week. If you divide 3500 calories by 7, it will come out that how many extra calories you have consumed on each day. If I divide 3500 by 7 it comes out 500 calories, which means you are eating 500 calories extra each day.

You were eating 2100 calories each day and if I subtract 500 calories then your maintenance calories will become out 1800 calories. Hope all that makes sense.

Average weight gainedCalories eating per daySurplus caloriesMaintenance calories
1 lb (0.5 kg)2100 kcalGained 1 lb in a week = 3500 kcal

3500/7 = 500 calories surplus/day
2100-500 = 1800 kcal

Thus, changes in weight are predominantly fat and water, but using a 14-day average will eliminate the “noise” of Water weight fluctuations.

So, you can be reasonably sure that the short-term changes in body weight you observe will be well represented by the “3500 calorie rule.”

Another Example:

So if you only gained 0.2 lb (~0.1 kg), you simply multiply 3500 x 0.2, which is 700 calories. Meaning, in the above example you are in a weekly surplus of ~700 calories.

On a day-to-day basis, on average, that means you are consuming 100 calories more than your maintenance (700 calories divided by 7 days).

Thus, you know that since your average intake over 14 days was 2100 calories, you know maintenance is roughly 2000 (2100 – 100 calories).

You can use the above-mentioned examples to find your own maintenance calories. Hope it helps.

Record your body weight(in the same condition to avoid fluctuation) and track food at least for 2 weeks (14 days). Add all the bodyweight values and divide them by 14, so you will get the idea that you are gaining or losing weight. Now you know that 1 lb of fat = 3500 calories. So using this equation and on the basis of your weight response, you will be able to find your maintenance calories. 🙂


Another Method If Not Having Enough Time

Just be warned that it can be far less accurate than actual tracking, but can still yield some sensible results. Keeping in mind that there are huge amounts of individual variation here, a good way to ballpark this for most people.

As I have said earlier This method is more like a trial and error method.

So let us start the procedure:-

First, take your body weight in pounds and multiply it by 10 (or multiply your body weight in kilograms by 22) and then multiply that value by an activity multiplier.

Activity multiplier means you have to multiply this number according to your activity levels in the whole day.

As an example, let’s do a calculation for a male that weighs 200 lb (90 kg), when we multiply by 10 (22) we get a theoretical baseline of 2000 calories.


Now when I say “activity”,

It’s not just dependent on whether you’re a construction worker or sitting at a desk all day, a full-time athlete, or a weekend warrior. This also includes something called NEAT, which stands for non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

Or more simply put, any activity outside of exercise, including subconscious movement.

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
Some people a first day at the gym

So yes, someone sedentary will have lower maintenance than someone highly active, but a part of the reason there is such large individual variation is that NEAT is one of the main ways we regulate energy expenditure.

Meaning, if we diet and lose weight, or eat more food and gain weight, our body typically will adapt to some degree to maintain our “normal weight”.

It does this by making us burn more or fewer calories, and a lot of that is a function of just fidgeting, postural support and control, and subconscious movement. But you can also increase your metabolism to some extent.

It’s not something we can really modify. Some people will sit at their desk all day and burn a whole lot more calories than I ever will, simply because I have a “thrifty metabolism”


Calculation

Almost everyone reading this article will probably (or should, in most cases) fall in the range of lifting weights 3–6 times per week.

So, taking into account individual variability and also your exercise schedule,

we can use the numerical range of 1.3 to 2.2 as an activity multiplier.

I would say about 90% of people fall in this range.

So what that means is that yes, there are going to be people who need 2600 calories to maintain 200 lb (not very much for a person that size), all the way up to maybe 4400 calories (a lot for a person that size). 

Most will fall in the middle range, but some won’t. So there really is a large variation and there are people who are even further outside of those ranges believe it or not.

According to the book muscle and strength pyramid: nutrition lifestyle has been categorized into 4 categories:

LIFESTYLE & TRAINING FREQUENCY ACTIVITY MULTIPLIER

LIFESTYLE & TRAINING FREQUENCYACTIVITY MULTIPLIER
Sedentary plus 3-6 days of weight lifting1.3 – 1.6
Lightly active plus 3-6 days of weight lifting1.5 – 1.8
Active plus 3-6 days of weight lifting1.7 – 2.0
Very active plus 3-6 days of weight lifting1.9 – 2.2

Baseline Multiplier x Activity Multiplier = Estimated Calories For Bodyweight Maintenance

Depending on lifestyle and individual differences, these calculations can equate to a 2600 – 4400 calorie range for maintenance in our 200 lb (90 kg) male example.

Now I know what you are wondering: “How do I know which value to choose, what determines each level of activity?”

Well, that’s why it is best to actually take the two weeks to fully track your intake as discussed earlier.

However, if you want to get started faster, just take the middle value of 1.7 as your multiplier. Then, if you gain or lose weight too quickly after 2–3 weeks, just adjust your intake. This is a perfectly valid approach as well.

To reduce or increase energy intake qualitatively, modify your energy intake subjectively by assessing your satiety after meals. For example, if you are not gaining weight at an appropriate rate, try to be more full and eat more calorie-dense foods.

If you are not seeing visual changes in leanness every 2–3 weeks (or weight loss on the scale, if you don’t feel like you can visually assess this) while trying to lose fat, try to be less full after meals, and eat more fibrous, high-protein, low-calorie foods that provide more satiety with less energy.

In this method, the calculation will be not very accurate and it’s just like a trial and error method. For calculation, take your body weight in pounds and multiply it by 10, whatever the value comes out multiply it by the activity multiplier. Activity multiplier is the range of the activity levels throughout the day, for most people 1.7 will be a good number to start.

Okay so now you know 2 different methods to find out your maintenance calories—Yay.

Many people should be aware of whether they need to lose or gain weight but many are not so for them the main question arises what approach should they follow?


Should I Gain or Should I Cut?

Now here you know how to find the maintenance calories, but again the main question arises that should you go for cut (losing weight) to bulk (gaining weight).

The phenomenon of losing or gaining weight is not very simple so you have to be very specific about that, You aim for losing or gaining for improving your health and fitness levels right?

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
People try to figure out whether they should cut or bulk

So you need to be very specific about that cut means aiming for losing the fat mass of the body and bulk means aiming for putting on muscle mass on the body.

Of course, That will not purely happen(gain only muscle and lose only fat), but the majority of the concept and approach should be in the right direction.

So where to start: The answer to this question depends on your current body composition

Fat and Fat-Free Mass

This means how much % of fat and fat-free mass your body contains.

The fat mass which we all know that the excess fat fats stored in the adipose tissue, body Fats are not bad in fact they are very much important but excess of the fat accumulated in the body lead to certain health problems like obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

HOW TO DETERMINE MAINTENANCE CALORIES
fat-free mass

Fat-free mass is considered as the mass or weight without the fat tissue like muscles, bones, organs, blood, minerals, and other essential things in the body.

For someone’s fitness levels and health levels, we generally look up to the body fat % (percentage) because it can be changed and it is variable whereas the fat-free masses like bones and weight of the organs cannot be changed.

Healthy body fat % for malesHealthy body fat % for females
14-18%21-24%

The healthy body fat % of females is higher due to the essential fats that are there are more in the body of the female.

How to know what is your current body fat percentage? Just search on google> go to the images section>select one image> you will get a rough estimation of what category do you fall into.

If you are on the higher body fat percentage I would recommend that go for a cut, aim for losing the excess body fat.

It doesn’t mean that go on starvation mode and run all day to lose your weight, that will eventually happen but you will end up losing your muscles and it will lead to bad body composition. that’s not your goal right?

For achieving the right good and a dream physique body composition you should learn yourself how to eat and train (weight training) in the right way.

For more details on What macros to set for weight loss and training check out these.

Should you aim to lose or gain weight its depends on your current body fat percentage, if you are on the lower side try to go for the bulk, if you are on the higher end go for the cut. Cut and bulk don’t mean go and starve yourself and eat all day respectively, It also means you should take the right approach. Learn how to eat snd train.


Good Rate For Fat Loss

So if you are on the higher side of body fat %(percentage) then you are going to cut.

Now, what should be the rate of fat loss should be per week, Is it 1 kg or 2 kg, or more specifically what is the healthy rate for losing weight per week?

If you are tracking food and weighing bodyweight regularly, the next step in setting up a diet is to take maintenance calories to determine appropriate caloric intake for your fat loss goal. 

For weight loss, I’d recommend that you aim to lose weight at a rate of 0.5 to 1.0% of body weight per week to minimize muscle and strength loss

how fat loss
Coaches who force clients to go on starvation mode to lose weight as fast as possible

For example: With the 200 lb (90 kg) male example we talked about earlier, this would be 1 to 2 lb (~0.5 to 0.9 kg) per week.

As we know that 3500 calories roughly equate to 1 lb (~0.5 kg) of adipose tissue; so if you drop 500 calories per day, then you’ll drop roughly 1 lb (~0.5 kg) per week if the majority is fat.

Again, this is not an exact science, but it’s a good rough estimate to start from.

So if someone’s maintenance calories come out 2200 calories according to their current activity levels then eating 1700-1800 calories will be a good way to start to lose weight.

That concept means that you may have to eat less than you expect to get the rate of weight loss.

Additionally, we don’t only lose body fat during a diet. In fact, muscle loss and potentially muscle gain while dieting can confound the numbers.

we should always aim for the right kind of weight loss i.e. fat loss and should try to maintain or grow muscle as it is the main component of the fat-free mass and performs several functions also.

The point is, these recommendations are just good starting places to set up the diet, but from there you will have to adjust.

For losing weight it is recommended that losing 0.5-1% of the body weight is the good way to start, For a 90 kg person, 0.5 % comes out half kg of weight should be lost in a week, which means creating a deficit of 400-500 calories will be a good way to start.


Good Rate For Gaining

Now if you are on the lower end of your body percentage or your weight is too low that the gaining or bulking approach will be good for you.

Realistic and effective rates of weight loss are very different from weight gain.

Anyone who is a natural lifter(not using PEDs or steroids) and has been at it for 3 to 5 years or longer will tell you that watching muscle grow is like watching paint dry, while fat loss can happen relatively quickly in comparison.

Even for a lifter who has been in the gym for a year and a half, you can massively change your physique in a 24-week contest prep or cutting phase by dropping body fat.

So gaining muscular weight is mainly depends on your genetic potential(how much muscle you can gain in 15 years) and your training experience(from how many years you are lifting weights). However, it might take 24 months to make a visual difference in a physique on the same level during a gaining phase.

In fact, a 12-week study comparing rates of weight gain in resistance-trained athletes found that the group that consumed a small surplus gained the same amount of muscle and strength, but only one-fifth the body fat as the group that consumed an additional 600 calories [16]. It means for a beginner the surplus is mainly fueled for muscle gain.

What is the normal rate for gaining for a beginner?

RATE OF MONTHLY WEIGHT GAINBeginner
1 to 1.5% of body weight increased/monthAble to progress most training loads in the gym on a week to week basis

Beginner example, a male who weighs ~180 lb (~82 kg) would be looking to gain ~2–3 lb (~0.9–1.3 kg) per month, while a female weighing ~130 lb (~59 kg) would be looking to gain ~1–2 lb (~0.4–0.9 kg) per month.

how fat loss
Gaining muscle is possible but it is a slow process

Remember that if you go faster than this, the weight you are putting on will probably be proportionately more body fat.

It is very easy for excess (some is unavoidable) fat mass to come right along with muscle gain if you are not careful, which is something we do not want.

Cause building muscle needs time and consistency to repair and grow.

If you are on the lower weight the gaining approach will be good for you. The rate of gaining is very much different from weight loss, weight loss comes from just a deficit but gaining muscle takes time and consistency. How much you will gain on a monthly basis will depend on genetic potential and the time you have been training. For a beginner gaining, 1kg per month will be a good rate for a beginner.


Aim For Body Recomposition

While losing or gaining weight, we think that that we are only losing fat or gaining muscle, but this is not the fact. Our bodies are very dynamic and it has the potential to do both things at the same time or vice versa.

Body recomposition as the name suggests is simply gaining muscle and losing fat mass at the same time. And this is what happens in most cases when someone performs resistance training during a caloric deficit diet with eating a good amount of protein.

For example, gaining a small amount of muscle in a deficit, losing small amounts of fat in a surplus, or even gaining small amounts of fat in a deficit are all technically possible because of the differences in the water and energy contents of different tissues of the body. As you should know fats and muscles are made out of different tissues.

aim for body recomposition
People after realizing that body recomp is possible

Does it mean that if you lose 3 kg of fat and you will be able to gain 3 kg of muscle? No, it doesn’t mean that that’s actually not possible.

let’s take the example shown

In a study of overweight elderly men who had experienced a significant amount of age-related muscle atrophy(muscle loss) who began a resistance training program and a protein supplementation regimen.

One of the groups in this study gained 1.3 lb (0.6 kg) of body weight on average after 16 weeks. To get to this change in weight, they lost 2.4 lb (1.1 kg) of fat mass, while gaining 3.7 lb (1.7 kg) of muscle mass on average.

So, they must have been in a surplus because of the gain in body weight right? Believe it or not, they were actually in a deficit of about ~65 kcals per day!

It just means that the rate of gaining muscle and fat will differ but this process can be performed at the same time. I hope it makes sense.

Body recomp can be experienced by the majority of the people like beginners, detained lifters, obese, etc. It can’t be achieved only a small group of people like experienced lifters who are lifted for 15+ years and are very close to their genetic potential.

For example,

If during a diet break you visually get leaner while gaining weight, you might be gaining more weight from regained glycogen and muscle tissue (and the gut weight of more food) than the small amount of weight that you are losing body fat. 

It’s also important to point out that these ‘body recomp changes, where slight deficits or surpluses produce changes in both muscle mass and fat mass simultaneously, happen slowly.

Even in the example, I used of overweight elderly men training for the first time, the changes occurred over a four-month time period. It’s not as though large amounts of muscle can be gained while large amounts of fat are lost in a few short weeks, especially in well-trained individuals.

This is why dedicated periods of purposeful fat loss and muscle gain are recommended.

Check out the complete guide for who can go for body recomposition.

Body recomposition simply means gaining muscle and losing fat at the same time, For the majority of people, this phenomenon can be achieved easily with some knowledge in training and nutrition. It doesn’t mean that you will gain a lot amount of muscle and lose a lot of fat, it means while losing 2 kg of fat you will be able to gain 0.6 kg of muscle. For most people, it can be achieved naturally.


Now here we come to an end, if you like this article helpful and valuable give it a like, share it with a friend, and don’t forget to follow through email for more updates.

If you want a quick recap just go through the TAKEAWAYS section and let me know in the comment that what new concepts you have learned here today.

Till then bye and have a good day 🙂



Takeaways

Maintenance calories are the number of calories that your body needs to sustain your current body weight. For finding maintenance calories you need to track your body weight and the number of foods(calories) that you are consuming daily.

Tracking means keeping a record of something, tracking food is necessary because it helps you keep aware of your eating habits and portions. Few tools which will help in tracking like digital weighing and food scale and an account on MyFitnessPal or HealthifyMe (whichever you may like).

Track or weigh yourself first thing in the morning after using the washroom and in minimal clothes without drinking or eating anything. Weigh yourself daily in this same situation so the chances of variability will be less and your weekly averages will be more accurate.

Food tracking means keeping a record of what and how much you are eating in a day. Weigh your foods before cooking to avoid fluctuations and track a record with help of any app like Healthyfime. If you forgot to track your means try habit stacking as mentioned above.

Record your body weight(in the same condition to avoid fluctuation) and track food at least for 2 weeks (14 days). Add all the bodyweight values and divide them by 14, so you will get the idea that you are gaining or losing weight. Now you know that 1 lb of fat = 3500 calories. So using this equation and on the basis of your weight response, you will be able to find your maintenance calories. 🙂

In this method, the calculation will be not very accurate and it’s just like a trial and error method. For calculation, take your body weight in pounds and multiply it by 10, whatever the value comes out multiply it by the activity multiplier. Activity multiplier is the range of the activity levels throughout the day, for most people 1.7 will be a good number to start.

Should you aim to lose or gain weight its depends on your current body fat percentage, if you are on the lower side try to go for the bulk, if you are on the higher end go for the cut. Cut and bulk don’t mean go and starve yourself and eat all day respectively, It also means you should take the right approach. Learn how to eat snd train.

For losing weight it is recommended that losing 0.5-1% of the body weight is the good way to start, For a 90 kg person, 0.5 % comes out half kg of weight should be lost in a week, which means creating a deficit of 400-500 calories will be a good way to start.

If you are on the lower weight the gaining approach will be good for you. The rate of gaining is very much different from weight loss, weight loss comes from just a deficit but gaining muscle takes time and consistency. How much you will gain on a monthly basis will depend on genetic potential and the time you have been training. For a beginner gaining, 1kg per month will be a good rate for a beginner.

Body recomposition simply means gaining muscle and losing fat at the same time, For the majority of people, this phenomenon can be achieved easily with some knowledge in training and nutrition. It doesn’t mean that you will gain a lot amount of muscle and lose a lot of fat, it means while losing 2 kg of fat you will be able to gain 0.6 kg of muscle. For most people, it can be achieved naturally.



References

Hall, K.D., What is the required energy deficit per unit weight loss? Int J
Obes. [PubMed]

Forbes, G.B., Body fat content influences the body composition response
to nutrition and exercise. [PubMed]

Kondo, M., et al., Upper limit of fat-free mass in humans: A study on
Japanese Sumo wrestlers. [PubMed]

Ainsworth, B.E., et al., Compendium of physical activities: classification
of energy costs of human physical activities. [PubMed]

Wilson, J.M., et al., Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining
interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. [PubMed]

Gergley, J.C., Comparison of two lower-body modes of endurance training
on lower-body strength development while concurrently training.[PubMed]

Ogasawara, R., et al., Effects of periodic and continued resistance training
on muscle CSA and strength in previously untrained men. [PubMed]

Maltais, M.L., et al., Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources
of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in
Sarcopenic Overweight. [PubMed]

Garthe, I., et al., Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition
and performance in elite athletes. [PubMed]

Helms, E.R., A.A. Aragon, and P.J. Fitschen, Evidence-based
recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition
and supplementation. [PubMed]

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